יורה דעה

 

Yoreh Deah (He will instruct knowledge)

סימן א - מי הם הכשרים לשחוט,

Chapter 1

Who is acceptable to be a (ritual) slaughterer?

 

א

הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲפִלּוּ נָשִׁים.

וַעֲבָדִים וְכָל אָדָם, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁמֻּחְזָק לִשְׁחֹט שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעַלֵּף, וְגַם אֵין יוֹדְעִין בּוֹ שֶׁהוּא מֻמְחֶה וְיוֹדֵעַ הִלְכוֹת שְׁחִיטָה, מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה לִשְׁחֹט, וּמֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל מִשְּׁחִיטָתוֹ, שֶׁרֹב הָרְגִילִין לִשְׁחֹט הֵם בְּחֶזְקַת מֻמְחִין וּמֻחְזָקִין. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ לְפָנֵינוּ, אָז מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל מִשְּׁחִיטָתוֹ וְסוֹמְכִים עַל הַחֲזָקָה. אֲבָל אִם הוּא לְפָנֵינוּ, צָרִיךְ לְבָדְקוֹ, אִם הוּא מֻמְחֶה וְיוֹדֵעַ הִלְכוֹת שְׁחִיטָה, אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְשָׁאֲלוֹ אִם נִתְעַלֵּף.

 

Siman 1

 

 

Seif 1

All may slaughter, at the outset, even women.

Slaves and virtually anyone even though you do not know them who does not faint because of slaughtering. (is fit for slaughtering.)

 

Even though you do not know where or whether he learned the laws of slaughtering.

 

It is permitted from the outset to accept what he slaughters and permitted to eat it as well.

 

This is because most are familiar with his slaughtering and his expertise is known as well.

 

What are we saying?

 

(We are saying) that if that person is not in front of us it is permitted to eat what he slaughters because we rely on what is generally known.

 

However if he is before us we need to check if he is an expert in the laws of slaughtering, however we do not need to ask if he faints.

 

 

י

עָרֹם, לֹא יִשְׁחֹט לְכַתְּחִלָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ.

 

Seif 10

 

A naked person is not allowed to slaughter from the outset due to not being able to say the blessing.

 

יא

אִם הִטִּילוּ הַקָּהָל חֵרֶם, שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁחֹט אֶלָּא טַבָּח יָדוּעַ, וְשָׁחַט אַחֵר, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁשְּׁחִיטָתוֹ אֲסוּרָה.

 

Seif 11

 

If a community instituted a pronouncement  that only a specific butcher would be allowed to slaughter, and another butcher goes ahead and slaughters, (regarding what he slaughtered) There are those who say that what he slaughtered is forbidden.

 

יב

הַשּׁוֹחֵט בִּפְנֵי עֵדִים בְּהֵמָה לְעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים, וּכְשֶׁבָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל לִקְנוֹת מִמֶּנָּה, אָמַר: לֹא תִּקְנֶה מִמֶּנָּה כִּי לֹא שְׁחַטְתִּיהָ, אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן. וּמִיהוּ לְדִידֵיהּ אֲסוּרָה, דְּהָא שָׁוְיָא אַנַּפְשֵׁיהּ חֲתִיכָה דְּאִסוּרָא.

 

Seif 12

 

If someone slaughters an animal for a non-Jew in the presence of witnesses, and a Jew comes to purchase it from him, and he says "do not buy it, because it wasn't slaughtered in a kosher manner", we do not believe him, [and the buyer is allowed to purchase it (*based on the testimony of the witnesses who saw it was slaughtered in a  kosher manner)].  However, for the shochet himself, it is forbidden for him to eat it, since he declared it to be a forbidden item for himself (i.e. by his statement that it wasn't kosher).

 

יג

טַבָּח שֶׁעָשָׂה סִימָן בְּרֹאשׁ הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשָּׁחוּט, שֶׁיְּהֵא נִרְאֶה שֶׁהוּא טְרֵפָה, וְגַם הָיָה אוֹמֵר שֶׁהוּא טְרֵפָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אָמַר שֶׁכָּשֵׁר הָיָה, וְלֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְּחוּ אוֹתוֹ וְיִשָּׁאֵר לוֹ לִקַּח מִמֶּנוּ בָּשָׂר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָּתַן אֲמַתְלָא לִדְּבָרָיו נֶאֱמָן.

 

Seif 13

 

If a butcher made a sign on the head of a (kosher) slaughtered sheep, in order that it should appear to be treifah, and also he said it is treifah, but subsequently he said it was kosher, and he only said that it wasn't kosher earlier in order that he could take it for himself therefore it should remain (unpurchased) so he could take the meat from it, since he gave a reason for his words, he is believed (that it is indeed kosher and only appears non-kosher based on a post-slaughter butchering technique).