This chart contains holy names of YHWH.  It should not be discarded in a disrespectful manner.

 

 

Transliteration Key

k = as in look;Kaf

 

k = k as in Scottish word loch; Khaf[Listen]

 

t = t as in took;Taw

 

t = th as in threw; Thaw[Listen]

 

t = emphatic t;Tet [Listen]

 

g = good; Gimal

 

g = like French "r;" Ghimal[Listen]

 

q = like a "g" made with the uvula; Quf[Listen]

a = "ahh" like the i in "high;" Patah [Listen]

 

a = apple; Sagol

 

o = as in "oh;"  Holam [Listen]

 

o = similar to a in "aw;" Qomos [Listen]

 

u = ou as in you. [Listen]

 

i = like ee in "see;" Hiriq

 

e = e as in Fed ; Sere [Listen]

 

Any vowel in bold is pronounced with "Ayin." Any vowel followed by '' is followed by "Ayin," with the sound of the vowel being made before the sound of "Ayin." [Listen]

d = as in dog; Daleth

 

d = th as in they; Daleth [Listen]

 

s = as in sold; Siin or Samekh

 

s = emphatic s; Sade [Listen]

 

s = sh as in should; Shin

 

h = house [listen]; When it's the last letter in a word, no vowel follows, like in hallelu'YaH - [listen]; Heh

 

h = soft gutteral h, like a loud whisper;Heth [Listen]

 

r = an "r" made by tongue flap on front teeth; Resh [Listen]

 

 
 
 

CUSTOMARY EXPRESSIONS:

אבי

Avi

Dad; lit: my father

1

אמי

Immi

Mom; lit: my mother

2

אחי

Ahi

Brother; lit: my brother

3

אחותי

Ahoti

Sister; lit: my sister

4

מותק

Moteq

Term of endearment: Sweety;

lit: sweet (masculine)

5

מתוקה

Metuqa

Term of endearment: Sweety;

lit: sweet (feminine)

6

חמוד

Hamud

Term of endearment: Cute;

(masculine)

7

חמודי

Hamudi

Term of endearment: Cutey;

(masculine)

8

חמודה

Hamuda

Term of endearment: Cute; Cutey;

(feminine)

9

שובב

sovav

Term of endearment:

Little rascal;

Lit: mischievous or naughty

10

צדיק

Sadiq

Term of endearment: Saint;

lit: righteous  (masculine)

11

צדיקה

Sadiqa

Term of endearment: Saint;

lit: righteous  (feminine)

12

ידידי

Yedidi

Term of endearment: Dear friend; lit: my cherished friend

13

אם ירצה השם

im yirseh HaShem

If HaShem wills.

14

ברכות

Berakot

Blessings!

15

ברוך הבא

Baruk ha-ba

Welcome! Lit: blessed is he

who comes.

16

ברוך הנמצא

Baruk ha-nimsa

Reply: blessed is he who is found (or: present)

17

ברוכה הבאה

Baruka ha-ba’a

Feminine singular of

18

ברוכים הבאים

Barukim ha-ba’im

Plural of 16;

19

ברוכים הנמצאים

Barukim ha-nimsa’im

Plural of 17;

20

ברוכות הבאות

Barukot ha-ba’ot

Plural feminine of 16;

21

ברוכות נמצאות

Barukot ha-nimsa’ot

Plural feminine of 17;

22

ברוך השם

Baruk HaShem

Blessed be the Name

23

ישתבח שמו לעד

Yistabah shemo l-ad

His Name be praised forever

24

ולדורי דורים

u-l-doreh dorim

Response: even for all generations; Lit: and for generations of generations

25

יתפאר היוצר

Yitpa’er ha-Yoser

Glorified be the Creator

26

ולנצח נצחים

u-l-nesah nesahim

Response: even for all eternity; Lit: and for eternity of eternities

27

יתעלה הבורא

Yit’aleh ha-Boreh

G-d be exalted.

Lit: exalted be the Creator

28

בעזרת השם

b-ezrat HaShem

With HaShem’s help

29

בסיעתא דשמייא

b-siya”ta d-shmaiya

With Heaven’s help (Aramaic)

30

עבודה טובה

Avoda tova

Good job!  Lit: good work

31

עבודה מצוינת

Avoda mesuyenet

Excellent job!

Lit: exceptional work!

32

לא נורא

Lo norah

Not so bad; Don’t worry.

Lit:  [It’s] not terrible

33

מדהים

Madhim

Amazing; awesome.

34

יפה

Yafeh

Nice! Lit: comely

35

יופי

Yofi

Great! Lit: Beauty

36

בסדר

Beseder

Alright; OK;

Lit: in order

37

טוב

Tov

Alright; OK;

Lit: good.

38

שטויות

Setuyot

Nonsense; Lit: nonsenses

39

די

Dai

Lit: Enough;

Can be used for: “stop!”

40

כל הכבוד

Kol ha-kavod

Well done! Lit: all the respect

41

חזק וברוך

Hazaq u-varuk

Great job!  Lit: Strong and blessed.

42

חס ושלום

Has w-salom

G-d forbid; lit: [May G-d have] pity and [give] peace.

43

חס וחלילה

Has w-halila

G-d forbid;

lit: pity and desolation

44

השם ישמור

HaShem yismor

G-d forbid; lit: May G-d guard.

45

בשורות טובות

Besorot tovot

[May there be] good news,

or good tidings.

46

תטהר

titaher

Upon seeing someone who showered or bathed: Be purified;

Lit: You will be pure

47

תנקה מכל עון

Tinoqe mi-kol owan

Response: Be cleaned of all sin; Lit: You will be clean from all sin

48

שלום

Salom

Peace, wholeness, wellbeing.

49

שלום וברכה

Salom u-veraka

Response: Peace and blessing [upon you]

50

שלום עליכם

Salom alekem

Peace be upon you.

51

ועליכם שולם

w- alekem Salom

Response:  and upon you be peace.

52

צאתכם לשלום

Setkem l-salom

Go in peace.

53

נסיעה טובה

Nesiya tova

[May you have] a good trip.

54

השם ישמרך

HaShem yismereka

May HaShem preserve, keep, or guard you.

55

השם ירחם

HaShem yerahem

G-d help us; lit: May G-d have compassion.

56

השם יהיה בעזרך

HaShem yihyeh b-ezreka

May HaShem be at your aid.

57

כל טוב

Kol tuv!

All the best!

58

אלהים יהיה עמך

Alohim yihyeh imak

Elohim be with you.

59

מעמך לא יסור

m-imak lo yasur

Response:  He shall

not abandon you.

60

בהצלחה

b-haslaha

May you have success;

lit: with success!

61

שבת שלום

Sabbat salom

[May you have] a Sabbath of peace.

62

שבת שלום ומברך

Sabbat salom u-mvorak

Response: [And may you have] a blessed Sabbath of peace

63

שבת טוב ומברך

Sabbat tov u-mvorak

[May you have] a good and blessed Sabbath

64

עליך ועל כך ישראל

Aleka w-al kol Yisrael

Or respond: Upon you and upon all Israel.

65

חודש טוב

Hodesh tov

[May you have] a goodly [new] month

66

עליך ועל כך ישראל

Aleka w-al kol Yisrael

Response: Upon you and upon all Israel.

67

חג שמח

Hag sameyah

Happy holidays!  Lit: happy pilgrimage festival

68

תזכה לשנים רבות ומועדים טובים

Tizku l-sanim rabot

w-mo’adim tovim

Greeting on the pilgrimage festivals:  May you merit many years and goodly appointed times

69

בחייך ובימיך הטובים

b-haiyeka u-v-yomeka ha-tovim

Response:  In your life and in your days – the best.

70

חַיֶּיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ

Haiyeka l-faneka

Greeting someone in the midst of Torah study: 

Your life is before you.

71

כִּי הוּא חַיֶּיךָ

וְאוֹרֶךְ יָמֶיךָ

Ki hu haiyeka w-orek yomeka

Response:  For they are your life and the length of your days.

72

תְּנוּחָמוּ מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם

Tenuhamu min ha-samaiyim

Greeting a mourner:  May you be comforted from Heaven

73

תִּכָּתֵב בְּסֵפֶר הַחַיִּים וּבְסֵפֶר הַזִּכָּרוֹן

Tikatev b-sefer ha-haiyim u-va-sefer ha-zikaron

Greeting from Yom Terua till Yom Kipur:  May you be written in the book of life and in the book of remembrance

74

אָמֵן. וְאַתָּה תּכָּתֵב בְּסֵפֶר הַחַיִּים וּבְסֵפֶר הַזִּכָּרוֹן

Amen. w-ata tikatev b-sefer ha-haiyim u-va-sefer ha-zikaron

Response:  Amen. And may you [also] be written in the book of life and in the book of remembrance

75

תְּבֻשָׂר בִּמְחִילָה וּסְלִיחָה וְכַפָּרָה

Tevuser bi-mhila u-sliha w-kapara

Greeting at Yom Kippur conclusion:  May you have good news of forgiveness, pardon, and atonement.

76

אָמֵן. וְאַתָּה תְּבוּשָׂר בִּמְחִילָה וּסְלִיחָה וְכַפָּרָה

Amen. w-ata tevuser bi-mhila w-seliha w-kapara

Response: Amen. And may you [also] have good news of forgiveness, pardon, and atonement.

77

תודה לאל

todah l-el

Thanks be to G-d.

78

תודה לך

Todah leka

Thank you. (masculine singular)

79

תודה לך

Todah lak

Feminine singular of: Thank you.

80

תודה לכם

Todah lekem

Thank you (plural).

81

בבקשה

b-vaqasa

You’re welcome; lit: at [your] request

82

בשמחה

b-simha

Happily; lit: with joy

83

תיזכו למצות

Tizku l-miswot

When someone did a good deed:  may you merit to [do additional] commandments.

84

תיזכו לעשות

Tizku l-asot

Response: may you merit to [likewise] do [commandments]

85

יזכך השם

Yezakeka HaShem

May HaShem reward you.

86

יברכך השם

Yevorekka HaShem

HaShem bless you

87

לבריות

La-vriyut

To [your] health

88

לשובע

l-sova”

May you be satiated;

lit: for [your] satiation

89

ערב טוב

Erev tov

Good evening.

90

ערב טוב ומברך

Erev tov u-mvorak

Response:  [And may you have] a good and blessed evening.

91

תשמע תפילתך

Tisma” tefilateka

When encountering someone who just prayed:  May your prayer be heard.

92

ואתה תענה ותעתר בתפילה

w-ata te’ane w-te’ater

b-tefila

Response:  And may you be answered and accepted in prayer.

93

לילה טוב

Laila tov

Good night.

94

חלומות נעימים

Halomot na’imim

Response: Pleasant dreams

95

תלין בטוב

Talin b-tov

May you retire with

[G-d’s] goodness

96

תקיץ ברחמים

Teqis b-rahamim

Response: May you awaken to

[G-d’s] compassions

97

אם תשכב לא תפחד

Im tiskav lo tifhad

If departing a friend at night:

Sleep without fear; Lit: if you recline, you shall not fear.

98

ושכבת וערבה שנתך

w-sakavta w-arava senoteka

Response:  And you shall recline and have sweet sleep.

99

בוקר טוב

Boqer tov

Good morning.

100

בוקר אור

Boqer or

Response: [May you have]

a delightful morning;

lit: a morning of light.

101

 

 

In my research, pronouns are assumed when translating the Masoretic Text because they don't actually appear there...is this correct?

 

Yes and no. There are pronouns in Hebrew -- both in Biblical Hebrew and in Modern Hebrew ... and they're the same pronouns. "hu" = he. "he" = she. "hem" = them. "mi" = who, "ashar" = that / which, etc...

However, it is not necessary to use such pronouns in Hebrew as much as pronouns are used in English because unlike English verbs, a Hebrew verb has a special form for each person (whether 1st, 2nd, or 3rd person masculine, 1st, 2nd, or 3rd person feminine, etc...) So where as in English if you want to say someone walked, you must use the word "he" or "she" and say for example "he walked." In Hebrew, on the other hand, if you want to say "he walked" you only need to say "halakh" (walked) ... and the verb will have it's own special form for whether it is a "he" or a "she" or a masculine or feminine "them" that walked.

 

You could say "hu halakh" (he walked), but it is unnecessary since simply saying "halakh" means the same thing -- and Biblical Hebrew especially tends to use the briefest way of saying things, but it's not that we have no pronouns or that the pronoun is simply guessed or inferred. You don't guess that "halakh" is "he walked" instead of "she walked" because "halakh" can only refer to a one single masculine individual who walked. Where as if it were to intend to a woman, it would say "halkha." If it were to refer to several mean who walked, it would say "halkhu," and so on.

 

In English the verb stays the same -- "walk" -- and you just add "he" "she" or "they" before the word... and sometimes you add "ed" at the end of the verb (walked), but the vowels of the verb stay the same... it will always be w-a-l-k... but in Hebrew the vowels change entirely depending upon whether it was a he, she, or they. A theoretical way you might do it in English would be "walk" = He walked, "wolka" = she walked, "wolku" = they walked, "walkti" (i walked).

Hope you get the idea. It's not just guess work... it's just not English.

All the best!

Yosef

 
 
 
How can I best go about learning Hebrew?
 
 
The best way to learn is by immersion in the language. Yet, not everyone can surround themselves with Hebrew speakers. If the main reason for your desire to know Hebrew is for study, make sure to read, read, and read. If its the Hebrew of the Torah you want to learn, I recommend taking one chapter of the Torah and reading it in your native language and then rereading it in Hebrew. Do so even though you're not sure what the Hebrew says, or feel you understand nothing of what's written. Be patient. This will change with time. As you begin noticing certain Hebrew words repeating themselves, take note of those words and write down their meanings on the page.
 
Once you feel fairly confident in your understanding of the Hebrew of that chapter, move on to another chapter. Return every now and then to the chapters you already mastered to refresh your memory and ensure you will not forget the words you already learned. ' Do the same thing with the Mishna or whatever other text or type of Hebrew you want to learn.
If you're wanting to learn Hebrew to aid in Torah study, I'd say you should give the Written Torah priority. If you are able, read through the weekly Torah portion twice in Hebrew every week. Each weekly Torah portion is divided into 7 sections called aliyoth. You can use these 7 aliyoth as a means for easing the burden of reading the Torah portion twice a week in Hebrew by reading just one of the 7 aliyoth twice each day. By reading each of the 7 aliyoth twice a day, you will have completed the Torah portion twice by weeks end, without even realizing it.
 
Again, don't try to understand every word while familiarizing yourself with the text. Just read through the text, allowing your tongue and mouth to get used to forming the words. Allow your ear to recognize common words, even though you may not yet know the meaning of those words.
Once you definitely recognize certain words to the point that you're noticing them relatively frequently, it means that these words are already implanted in your memory. It's just a matter of plugging their definitions in place. If you stick with it, you'll be understanding the majority of the Hebrew text of the Written Torah after just one or two years, and with little effort. Consistency is key! I think it is much easier to learn Hebrew in the above manner rather than through forced memorization of long word lists.
 
Unless the person has amazing self control and super motivation, I think that most people are more likely to succeed in learning Hebrew by taking it slowly, not force feeding themselves vocabulary. Rather, by slowly building up their vocabulary though constant and consistent familiarization with the language, they will be less likely to burn themselves out. Aquiring vocabulary through constant reading also gives one the satisfaction of progress. In memorizing words directly from word lists, one only learns the individual words in that list. Building vocabularly through familiarization with significant passages, on the other hand, enables one to memorize the text, despite not understanding its content, in addition to the benefit of building vocabularly and giving the satisfaction of making headway in the text at hand.
 
REMEMBER: When reading a text, sound out the words as loudly as you're comfortable to sound them out. This will aid you in recognizing and memorizing words far more than if you read in a whisper.